Sunday, November 22, 2009
Mayo Clinic is a non-profit organization and internationally renowned group medical practice headquartered in Rochester, Minnesota. Its headquarters consist of the Mayo Medical School, the Mayo Graduate School, the Mayo College of Graduate Medical Education, and several other health science schools. Its research facilities are in Rochester, Minnesota, in addition to hospitals and clinics in Jacksonville, Florida, Scottsdale, Arizona, and Phoenix, Arizona. Mayo Clinic partners with a number of smaller clinics and hospitals in Minnesota, Iowa, and Wisconsin, an organization known as the "Mayo Health System."
For historical reasons, the institution is called "Mayo Clinic," rather than "The Mayo Clinic" or "Mayo's Clinic." The clinic started as a single, small outpatient facility, and later became America's first integrated group practice, a model that is now standard in the United States.
Mayo Clinic pays medical doctors a fixed salary that is unaffected by patient volume. This practice is thought to decrease the monetary motivation to see patients in large numbers and increase the incentive to spend more time with individuals. Salaries are determined by the marketplace salaries for physicians in comparable large group practices.
Mayo Clinic evolved from the frontier practice of Dr. William Worrall Mayo (1819–1911) and his two sons, William James Mayo (1861–1939) & Charles Horace Mayo (1865–1939). Dr. William Worrall Mayo emigrated from Salford, United Kingdom, to the United States in 1846 and became a doctor.
The Mayo Clinic founders are Drs. Mayo, Dr. Stinchfield, Dr. Graham, Dr. Henry Plummer, Dr. Millet, Dr. Judd, and Dr. Balfour. These early partners shared in the profits of the private group practice, while other staff hired by the partners were salaried. In 1919, this group created the Mayo Properties Association, and their private practice become a not-for-profit entity. The Mayo brothers, who had retained ownership of all the Clinic properties and furnishings, gave everything to this newly formed association. The integrated group practice has it roots firmly planted in this early private practice and partnership.
In 1892, Dr. Augustus Stinchfield was asked to join the practice by Dr. Mayo, who considered him to be the best doctor in the small towns near Rochester. Once Dr. Stinchfield joined the practice, Mayo retired at the age of 73.
Dr. Henry Stanley Plummer became a partner in the Clinic practice 1901. He is considered by many American physicians to be the "architect of the modern medical practice" and a primary reason for Mayo Clinic's early success. He designed many of the systems which are now universally used around the world today, such as a shared, individual dossier-style medical record and an interconnecting telephone system. While the Mayo brothers excelled as surgeons, Dr. Plummer is largely credited with establishing and developing the diagnostic and clinical aspects of the practice. Dr. Louis B. Wilson was hired by the Clinic in 1907—at Dr. Henry Plummer's urging—to establish research and diagnostic laboratories.
The Clinic's Plummer Building was designed by Johnathan William Dawson and Ray Corwin from the architectural firm of Ellerbe & Round, with considerable input from Clinic staff, and all under the guidance of Dr. Henry Plummer. At the time of completion in 1928, it was the tallest building in Minnesota and remained so until the Foshay Tower was built in Minneapolis. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1969, and has recently been undergoing an award winning restoration of its bell tower. The Ellerbe firm is the architect of record for the 1914 Mayo "Red" building, the 1922 Mayo Institute of Experimental Medicine, the 1927 "Plummer" building, the 1954 Mayo building, the new 2002 Gonda building, as well as the Rochester Methodist Hospital. The historic 1914 "Red" Mayo Clinic building, a National Landmark listed on the National Register, was demolished by the Clinic in the 1980s to make way for the HGA designed Siebens building. The Mayo campus in Rochester now occupies roughly three times the area of the Mall of America. Mayo Clinic Rochester employs over 30,000 people.